The History of Waterpower
Moving water was one of the earliest energysources to be harnessed to reduce the workload ofpeople and animals.No one knows exactly when thewaterwheel was invented,but irrigation systemsexisted at least 5,000 years ago,and it seems probable that the earliest waterpower device wasthe noria,a waterwheel that raised water for irrigation in attached jars.The device appears tohave evolved no later than the fifth century B.C.,perhaps independently in different regions ofthe Middle and Far East.
The earliest waterpower mills were probably vertical-axis mills for grinding corn,knownas Norse or Greek mills,which seem to have appeared during the first or second century B.C.inthe Middle East and a few centuries later in Scandinavia.In the following centuries,increasinglysophisticated waterpower mills were built throughout the Roman Empire and beyond itsboundaries in the Middle East and northern Europe.In England,the Saxons are thought to haveused both horizontal and vertical-axis wheels.The first documented English mill was in theeighth century,but three centuries later about 5,000 were recorded,suggesting that everysettlement of any size had its mill.
Raising water and grinding corn were by no means the only uses of the waterpower mill,and during the following centuries,the applications of waterpower kept pace with thedeveloping technologies of mining,iron working,paper making,and the wool and cottonindustries.Water was the main source of mechanical power,and by the end of theseventeenth century,England alone is thought to have had some 20,000 working mill.Therewas much debate on the relative efficiencies of different types of waterwheels.The period fromabout 1650 until 1800 saw some excellent scientific and technical investigations of differentdesigns.They revealed output powers ranging from about 1 horsepower to perhaps 60 for thelargest wheels and confirmed that for maximum efficiency,the water should pass across theblades as smoothly as possible and fall away with minimum speed,having given up almost allof its kinetic energy.(They also proved that,in principle,the overshot wheel,a type ofwheel in which an overhead streamof water powers the wheel,should win the efficiencycompetition.)
But then steam power entered the scene,putting the whole future of waterpower indoubt.An energy analyst writing in the year 1800 would have painted a very pessimisticpicture of the future for waterpower.The coal-fired steam engine was taking over,and thewaterwheel was fast becoming obsolete.However,like many later experts,this one would havesuffered from an inability to see into the future.A century later the picture was completelydifferent:by then,the world had an electric industry,and a quarter of its generating capacitywas water powered.
The growth of the electric-power industry was the result of a remarkable series ofscientific discoveries and development in electrotechnology during the nineteenth century,butsignificant changes in what we might now call hydro(water)technology also played their part.In 1832,the year of Michael Faraday’s discovery that a changing magnetic field produces anelectric field,a young French engineer patented a new and more efficient waterwheel.Hisname was Nenoit Fourneyron,and his device was the first successful water turbine.(The wordturbine comes from the Latin turbo:something that spins).The waterwheel,unaltered fornearly 2,000 years,had finally been superseded.
十九世纪电力工业的崛起源自一系列的科学发现和电工业的发展，但我们现在目睹的水力技术的重大进步也发挥了重要作用。在1832年，当Michael Faraday发现了变化的磁场能够产生电场理论时，一位年轻的法国工程师申请了一种新型的更有效率的水轮专利。他的名字叫Nenoit Fourneyron，而他的设备是最早的成功的水力涡轮。水轮在保持了近2000年的原始模样后终于被超越了。
Half a century of development was needed before Faraday’s discoveries in electricity weretranslated into full-scale power stations.In 1881 the Godalming power station in Surrey,England,on the banks of the Wey River,created the world’s first public electricity supply.Thepower source of this most modern technology was a traditional waterwheel.Unfortunately thisearly plant experienced the problem common to many forms of renewable energy:the flow inthe Wey River was unreliable,and the waterwheel was soon replaced by a steam engine.
From this primitive start,the electric industry grew during the final 20 years of thenineteenth century at a rate seldom if ever exceeded by any technology.The capacity ofindividual power stations,many of them hydro plants,rose from a few kilowatts to over amegawatt in less than a decade.
1.The word"harnessed"in thepassage(paragraph 1)is closest in meaning to
2.In paragraph 1,uncertainty is expressed about all of the following aspects of theearly development of waterpower EXCEPT
A.when exactly the very first waterpower devices were invented.
B.when exactly the very first waterpower devices were developed.
C.whether water was one of the earliest sources of power to be used by humans.
D.whether the very earliest waterpower devices arose independently.
3.According to paragraph 2,what was true of the waterpower mills built throughoutthe Roman Empire?
A.Most had horizontal-axis wheels.
B.Their design was based on mills that had long been used in Scandinavia.
C.Their design was more popular beyond the Empire's boundaries than it was within theEmpire.
D.They are more advanced than the mills used in the Middle East at an earlier time.
3.根据Throughout the roman empire定位到原文红色标注位置，对于waterpower mill的修饰是increasingly sophisticated也就是更复杂，更先进。因此选择D。
4.The phrase"the application of waterpower"in the passage(paragraph 3)is closestin meaning to
A.the uses to which waterpower was put.
B.the improvement made to waterpower.
C.the method by which waterpower was supplied.
D.the source of waterpower available.
5.According to paragraph 4,which of the following was discovered as a result ofscientific and technical investigations of waterpower conducted between 1650 and1800?
A.Some types of small waterwheel can produce as much horsepower as the very largestwheels.
B.Waterwheels operate more efficiently when water falls away from their blades slowly thanwhen water falls away quickly.
C.Waterwheel efficiency can be improved by increasing the amount of kinetic energy watercontains as it passes over a waterwheel's blades.
D.Unlike other types of waterwheels,the overshot wheel is capable of producing more than 60horsepower units of energy.
5.通过scientific and technical investigation定位到红色标注部分，后面几句就是调查的结果了，原文说输出的功率从1-60马力不等，水流越smooth，下落越慢，效率就越高。英雌，A选项，原文没提到。B选项正确。C.water contain的动能并不能改变，而是要尽可能的使其含有的动能释放出来。D提到了overshotwheel，对应本段最后一句。但是原文并没说这种轮就能输出高于60马单位的能量。
6.The word"pessimistic"in the passage is closest in meaning to
6.根据前面一句，有了蒸汽动力以后，水力资源就被put in doubt了。因此后面修饰水力资源利用前景的一定是一个负面的词。因此选择A，负面的。B是不相似的，C是令人吃惊的，D是不完整的。
7.The term"by then"in the passage refers to
A.by the time steam power entered the scene.
B.by the year 1800.
C.by the year 1900.
D.by the time waterwheel was becoming obsolete.
7.因为前文提到在1800年，水力资源利用衰败，by then的前半句说a century later，因此应该是一百年以后，也就是1900年。
8.According to paragraph 5,why did waterpower become more importantly by 1900?
A.Better waterwheel designs improved the efficiency of waterpower.
B.Waterpower was needed to operate steam engines.
C.Waterpower was used to generate electricity.
D.Waterwheels became more efficient than coal-powered engines.
9.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in thehighlighted sentence in the passage paragraph 5?Incorrect choices change themeaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A.The growth of the electric-power industry stimulated significant changes in hydro technologyand scientific progress in electrotechnology in the nineteenth century.
B.The changes in hydro technology that led to the growth of the electric-power industry also ledto discoveries and developments in electrotechnology in the nineteenth century.
C.Advances in electrotechnology in the nineteenth century and changes in hydro technologywere responsible for the growth of the electric-power industry.
D.In the nineteenth century,the scientific study of electrotechnology and hydro technologybenefited greatly from the growth of the electric-power industry.
9.原文句子的逻辑关系是，electrotechnology和changes in water growth共同促进了electric power工业。A逻辑关系完全反了。B混乱的。D与A逻辑相似。因此选择C。
10.The word"unaltered"in the passage is closest in meaning to
11.The discussion of the history of electric power production in paragraph 6 supportswhich of the following?
A.1832 marked the beginning of the industrial production of electric power.
B.Turbines using Benoit Fourneyron's design were eventually used to generate electric power.
C.Benoit Fourneyron quickly applied Michael Faraday's discovery about electric fields to acquirea pattern for a new and more efficient waterwheel.
D.Practical advances in hydro technology were more important to the development of electricpower than were advances in the theoretical understanding of electricity.
12.According to paragraph 7,what problem did the early power station in the town ofGodalming in Surrey,United Kingdom,face in providing electricity?
A.The traditional waterwheel is used was not large enough to meet the demand for energy.
B.The flow of the River Wey,on which the power station depended,was unreliable.
C.The operators of the Godalming power station had little experience with hydro technology.
D.The steam engine that turned the waterwheel was faulty and needed to be replaced.
13.Look at the four squares[■]that indicate where the following sentence could beadded to the passage.Where would the sentence best fit?The steam engine thatturned the waterwheel was faulty and needed to be replaced.
Raising water and grinding corn were by no means the only uses of the waterpower mill,andduring the following centuries,the applications of waterpower kept pace with the developingtechnologies of mining,iron working,paper making,and the wool and cotton industries.Waterwas the main source of mechanical power,and by the end of the seventeenth century,England alone is thought to have had some 20,000 working mill.There was much debate onthe relative efficiencies of different types of waterwheels.■【A】The period from about 1650until 1800 saw some excellent scientific and technical investigations of different designs.■【B】They revealed output powers ranging from about 1 horsepower to perhaps 60 for thelargest wheels and confirmed that for maximum efficiency,the water should pass across theblades as smoothly as possible and fall away with minimum speed,having given up almost allof its kinetic energy.■【C】(They also proved that,in principle,the overshot wheel,a typeof wheel in which anoverhead stream of water powers the wheel,should win the efficiencycompetition.)■【D】
14.Directions:An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage isprovided below.Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices thatexpress the most important ideas in the passage.Some sentences do not belong inthe summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or areminor ideas in the passage.This question is worth 2 points.
Ever since the development of waterwheel,which occurred no later than 500 B.C.,people have used moving water as a source of power.
A.The first water-powered machines were probably used to grind corn,and as technologyadvanced,waterwheels were used as the main source of power in many industries.
B.In the late nineteenth century an electric power station in England began using water powerfrom a nearby river,creating a dependable source of power that quickly replaced the steamengine.
C.In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries,design improvements I waterwheels led todiscoveries of how to increase their efficiency and power output.
D.Almost every large town in England had a waterpower mill,allowing England to become theworld's leader in industries that depended on water for their power.
E.Waterpower mills were probably invented about the same time in the Middle East andScandinavia and then spread to England by about the second century B.C..
F.After declining in importance in the early 1800's,waterpower came back into demand by theend of the century as a means to power electric plants and water turbines.
14.A正确，对应原文第二段第一句。B错误。原文说英国的居住点不管大小，都有自己的mill。对应原文第二段最后一句。C错误。原文说的是river的水流不稳定，结果很快被steam engine取代了。对应原文倒数第二段最后两句。D错误，对应原文第一段，原文说没人知道water mill是什么时候发明的。而且后半句时间也不对。E正确，对应原文第四段。F对应原文第五段最后一句，和第六段。
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