The Invention of the Mechanical Clock
In Europe,before the introduction of themechanical clock,people told time by sun(using,for example,shadow sticks or sun dials)and waterclocks.Sun clocks worked,of course,only on cleardays;water clocks misbehaved when the temperature fell toward freezing,to say nothing oflong-run drift as the result of sedimentation and clogging.Both these devices worked well insunny climates;but in northern Europe the sun may be hidden by clouds for weeks at a time,while temperatures vary not only seasonally but from day to night.
Medieval Europe gave new importance to reliable time.The Catholic Church had its sevendaily prayers,one of which was at night,requiring an alarm arrangement to waken monksbefore dawn.And then the new cities and towns,squeezed by their walls,had to know andorder time in order to organize collective activity and ration space.They set a time to go tosleep.All this was compatible with older devices so long as there was only one authoritativetimekeeper;but with urban growth and the multiplication of time signals,discrepancy broughtdiscord and strife.Society needed a more dependable instrument of time measurementand found it in the mechanical clock.
We do not know who invented this machine,or where.It seems to have appeared in Italyand England(perhaps simultaneous invention)between 1275 and 1300.Once known,itspread rapidly,driving out water clocks but not solar dials,which were needed to check thenew machines against the timekeeper of last resort.These early versions were rudimentary,inaccurate,and prone to breakdown.
Ironically,the new machine tended to undermine Catholic Church authority.Althoughchurch ritual had sustained an interest in timekeeping throughout the centuries of urbancollapse that followed the fall of Rome,church time was nature’s time.Day and night weredivided into the same number of parts,so that except at the equinoxes,days and night hourswere unequal;and then of course the length of these hours varied with the seasons.But themechanical clock kept equal hours,and this implied a new time reckoning.The CatholicChurch resisted,not coming over to the new hours for about a century.From the start,however,the towns and cities took equal hours as their standard,and the public clocks installedin town halls and market squares became the very symbol of a new,secular municipalauthority.Every town wanted one;conquerors seized them as especially precious spoils ofwar;tourists came to see and hear these machines the way they made pilgrimages to sacredrelics.
The clock was the greatest achievement of medieval mechanical ingenuity.Its generalaccuracy could be checked against easily observed phenomena,like the rising and setting ofthe sun.The result was relentless pressure to improve technique and design.At every stage,clockmakers led the way to accuracy and precision;they became masters of miniaturization,detectors and correctors of error,searchers for new and better.They were thus the pioneers ofmechanical engineering and served as examples and teachers to other branches ofengineering.
The clock brought order and control,both collective and personal.Its public display andprivate possession laid the basis for temporal autonomy:people could now coordinatecomings and goings without dictation from above.The clock provided the punctuation marksfor group activity,while enabling individuals to order their own work(and that of others)so asto enhance productivity.Indeed,the very notion of productivity is a by-product of the clock:once one can relate performance to uniform time units,work is never the same.One movesfrom the task-oriented time consciousness of the peasant(working on job after another,astime and light permit)and the time-filling busyness of the domestic servant(who always hadsomething to do)to an effort to maximize product per unit of time.
1.Why does the author provide the informationthat"in northern Europe the sun may be hiddenby clouds for weeks at a time,whiletemperatures vary not only seasonally but fromday to night"?
A.To emphasize the variety of environments in which people used sun and water clocks to telltime.
B.To illustrate the disadvantage of sun and water clocks.
C.To provide an example of an area where water clocks have an advantage over sun clocks.
D.To counter the claim that sun and water clocks were used all over Europe.
2.According to paragraph 2,all of the following are examples of the importance oftimekeeping to medieval European society EXCEPT
A.the need of different towns to coordinate timekeeping with each other.
B.the setting of specific times for the opening and closing of markets.
C.the setting of specific time for the start and finish of the working day.
D.the regulation of the performance of daily church rituals.
2.虽然原文提到说城与城之间要保持一直，但其目的是organize collective activity，和ration space。而collective activity对应了选项B，C对应set time to go to sleep,也就是结束工作的时间。D对应开头catholic church的prayers活动。
3.According to paragraph 2,why did the medieval church need an alarmarrangement?
A.The alarm warned the monks of discord or strife in the town.
B.The church was responsible for regulating working hours and market hours.
C.The alarm was needed in case fires were not put out each night.
D.One of the church's daily rituals occurred during the night.
3.对应原文的第二句话，可根据alarm arrangement定位，前文说one of which was at night，后面说towaken monk before dawn，这两个都可以算是原因，选项中符合的只有D。
4.The word"authoritative"in the passage(paragraph 2)is closest in meaning to
4.authoritative是权威的，A是真实的，B是重要的，C是官方的，D是有效的。因此C是正确的。文章中也说only one怎样的time keeper，所以应该是官方准确时间。
5.The author uses the phrase"the timekeeper of last resort"to refer to
5.前文说需要它去check这个machines，which前面说的是solar dials所以指的是the sun。
6.The word"rudimentary"in the passage(paragraph 3)is closest in meaning to
7.According to paragraph 4,how did the Catholic Church react to the introduction ofmechanical clocks?
A.Its used mechanical clocks through the period of urban collapse.
B.It used clocks to better understand natural phenomena,like equinoxes.
C.It tried to preserve its own method of keeping time,which was different from mechanical-clock time.
D.It used mechanical clocks to challenge secular,town authorities.
7.可定位至相关段落，关键词为resisted，not coming over，所以证明church在拒绝新的计时方法，也就是在试着保护自己的方法。
8.The word"installed"in the passage(paragraph 4)is closest in meaning to
B.expected by the majority of people.
D.put in place.
9.It can be inferred from paragraph 5 that medieval clockmakers
A.were able to continually make improvements in the accuracy of mechanical clocks.
B.were sometimes not well respected by other engineers.
C.sometimes made claims about the accuracy of mechanical clocks that were not true.
D.rarely shared their expertise with other engineers.
10.Paragraph 5 answers which of the following questions about mechanical clocks.
A.How did early mechanical clocks work?
B.Why did the design of mechanical clocks affect engineering in general?
C.How were mechanical clocks made?
D.What influenced the design of the first mechanical clock?
11.The word"pioneers"in the passage isclosest in meaning to
12.According to paragraph 6,how did the mechanical clock affect labor?
A.It encouraged workers to do more time-filling busywork.
B.It enabled workers to be more task oriented.
C.It pushed workers to work more hours every day.
D.It led to a focus on productivity.
12.定位到原文最后一句，说使人们从task-oriented和time-filling busyness的模式变为maximizeproduct per unit of time，从而提高了productivity，所以选择D。A，B原文都提到了，但是是转化前的状态，C没提到。
13.Look at the four squares[■]that indicate where the following sentence can beadded to the passage.Where would the sentence best fit?The division of time nolonger reflected the organization of religious ritual.
Ironically,the new machine tended to undermine Catholic Church authority.Although churchritual had sustained an interest in timekeeping throughout the centuries of urban collapsethat followed the fall of Rome,church time was nature's time.■【A】Day and night were dividedinto the same number of parts,so that except at the equinoxes,days and night hours wereunequal;and then of course the length of these hours varied with the seasons.■【B】But themechanical clock kept equal hours,and this implied a new time reckoning.■【C】The CatholicChurch resisted,not coming over to the new hours for about acentury.■【D】From the start,however,the towns and cities took equal hours as their standard,and the public clocks installedin town halls and market squares became the very symbol of a new,secular municipalauthority.Every town wanted one;conquerors seized them as especially precious spoils ofwar;tourists came to see and hear these machines the way they made pilgrimages to sacredrelics.
13.原句中no longer反应宗教仪式了，那么此句前后应该有对现在的计时制度的描写，另外句末提到了religious ritual，所以附近也应该有对宗教组织的态度描写，满足这两个条件的位置是C。
14.Directions:An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage isprovided below.Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices thatexpress the most important ideas in the passage.Some sentences do not belong inthe summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or areminor ideas in the passage.This question is worth 2 points.
The introduction of the mechanical clock caused important changes to the society of medievalEurope.
A.The increasing complexity of social and economic activity in medieval Europe led to theneed for a more dependable means of keeping time than sun and water clocks provided.
B.Because they were unreliable even in sunny climates,sun clocks and water clocks were rarelyused in Europe,even before the invention of the mechanical clock.
C.Before the mechanical clock,every city wanted a large number of timekeepers because moretimekeepers allowed for better organization of collective activities.
D.Soon after the invention of mechanical clocks,sun and water clocks became obsoletebecause mechanical clocks were far more accurate.
E.Predators help maintain biological diversity by limiting populations of a dominantcompetitor species,thereby preventing that species from excluding others.
F.The removal of sea stars reduces the diversity of the community in which they arepredators,and is therefore a bad idea.
14.A对应第二段倒数第一句和倒数第二句后半句"with urban growth and the multiplication of timesignals,discrepancy brought discord and strife.Society needed a more dependableinstrument of time measurement and found it in the mechanical clock."正确。B与原文第一段矛盾。不选。C原文并没有提到说有大量的timekeepers，而第三段还说只能有一个权威的timekeeper不选。D对应原文第三段，说应用mechanical clock之后water clock很快被弃用了，但sun clock依然留下用来对照mechanical clock的准确性，错，不选。
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