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托福TPO30阅读Passage3原文文本+题目+答案解析

为了帮助大家高效备考托福,蘑菇教育小编为大家带来托福TPO30阅读Passage3原文文本+题目+答案解析,希望对大家备考有所帮助。

  为了帮助大家高效备考托福,蘑菇教育小编为大家带来托福TPO30阅读Passage3原文文本+题目+答案解析,希望对大家备考有所帮助。

  The Invention of the Mechanical Clock

  In Europe,before the introduction of themechanical clock,people told time by sun(using,for example,shadow sticks or sun dials)and waterclocks.Sun clocks worked,of course,only on cleardays;water clocks misbehaved when the temperature fell toward freezing,to say nothing oflong-run drift as the result of sedimentation and clogging.Both these devices worked well insunny climates;but in northern Europe the sun may be hidden by clouds for weeks at a time,while temperatures vary not only seasonally but from day to night.

  在欧洲,在机械表被引入以前,人们利用太阳(比如棍子的影子和日晷)和水钟来确定时间。当然,太阳钟只能用于晴天使用,而水钟表在水温下降到冰点时会出错,长期漂浮的东西因为下沉或堵塞而无法工作。这两种仪器在晴天都运行的很好,但北欧,太阳可能会藏在云后长达一周,同时,温度不仅会随季节中变化,也因昼夜而不同。

  Medieval Europe gave new importance to reliable time.The Catholic Church had its sevendaily prayers,one of which was at night,requiring an alarm arrangement to waken monksbefore dawn.And then the new cities and towns,squeezed by their walls,had to know andorder time in order to organize collective activity and ration space.They set a time to go tosleep.All this was compatible with older devices so long as there was only one authoritativetimekeeper;but with urban growth and the multiplication of time signals,discrepancy broughtdiscord and strife.Society needed a more dependable instrument of time measurementand found it in the mechanical clock.

  中世纪欧洲使得可靠的时间变得更重要。天主教堂每天有七次的祷告,有一个是在晚上,它要求设定闹钟以便在破晓前叫醒布道师。另外新的城市和小镇,由于其空间的限制,他们必须要知道并且安排时间去组织集体活动和分配空间。他们设定时间睡觉。所有这些用老的仪器都是可以一致的,只要只有一个权威的时间记录者。但是随着城市的发展和报时信号的倍增,时间错乱导致了不和与争吵。社会需要一个更加可靠的工具去衡量时间,这个仪器就是机械钟表。

  We do not know who invented this machine,or where.It seems to have appeared in Italyand England(perhaps simultaneous invention)between 1275 and 1300.Once known,itspread rapidly,driving out water clocks but not solar dials,which were needed to check thenew machines against the timekeeper of last resort.These early versions were rudimentary,inaccurate,and prone to breakdown.

  我们并不知道是谁发明了这个机器,或者在哪。它好像是出现在意大利或是英国(也许是同时发明的)在1275年到1300之间。一旦被人们所知,它就快速传播并替代了水钟表,但日晷依然存在,用来对照这个新仪器与原来的计时法。早期的版本很原始,不准确且易坏。

  Ironically,the new machine tended to undermine Catholic Church authority.Althoughchurch ritual had sustained an interest in timekeeping throughout the centuries of urbancollapse that followed the fall of Rome,church time was nature’s time.Day and night weredivided into the same number of parts,so that except at the equinoxes,days and night hourswere unequal;and then of course the length of these hours varied with the seasons.But themechanical clock kept equal hours,and this implied a new time reckoning.The CatholicChurch resisted,not coming over to the new hours for about a century.From the start,however,the towns and cities took equal hours as their standard,and the public clocks installedin town halls and market squares became the very symbol of a new,secular municipalauthority.Every town wanted one;conquerors seized them as especially precious spoils ofwar;tourists came to see and hear these machines the way they made pilgrimages to sacredrelics.

  讽刺的是,新仪器有破坏天主教堂权威性的倾向。虽然几世纪以来,尽管城市瓦解,罗马没落,但教堂仪式一直保持着对时间记录的兴趣,教堂时间是自然的时间。白天和黑夜被分为均等的部分,所以除去昼夜平分点,白天和黑夜时间是不均等的;当然因此,这些时间的长度也随着季节变化。但是,机械时钟时间间隔相等,这意味着新的时间计算法。天主教会进行反抗,将近一个世纪都不肯转化到新的时间。但一开始,城镇都接受了均等时间作为他们的标准,并且安装公共的时钟在城镇大楼和市场变成了新的世俗市政权威的标志。每个城镇都想要一个;胜利者视它们为珍贵的战利品,在游人去神圣古迹朝圣的路上,他们专程去看并听这些钟表。

  The clock was the greatest achievement of medieval mechanical ingenuity.Its generalaccuracy could be checked against easily observed phenomena,like the rising and setting ofthe sun.The result was relentless pressure to improve technique and design.At every stage,clockmakers led the way to accuracy and precision;they became masters of miniaturization,detectors and correctors of error,searchers for new and better.They were thus the pioneers ofmechanical engineering and served as examples and teachers to other branches ofengineering.

  钟表是中世纪机械精巧装置的最大成就。它的正确性的可以通过简单地可观察日出日落等常见现象来证明。这样的结果是对技术和设计进步的残酷的压力。在每个阶段,制表人引领者准确与精度,他们成为了微型化的大师,错误的探测器和校正者,更新更好的搜寻者。因此他们是机械工程的先驱,是工程学其它分支的典范和老师。

  The clock brought order and control,both collective and personal.Its public display andprivate possession laid the basis for temporal autonomy:people could now coordinatecomings and goings without dictation from above.The clock provided the punctuation marksfor group activity,while enabling individuals to order their own work(and that of others)so asto enhance productivity.Indeed,the very notion of productivity is a by-product of the clock:once one can relate performance to uniform time units,work is never the same.One movesfrom the task-oriented time consciousness of the peasant(working on job after another,astime and light permit)and the time-filling busyness of the domestic servant(who always hadsomething to do)to an effort to maximize product per unit of time.

  钟表带来了秩序和控制,既有集体的也有个人的。它的公开展示和私人拥有铺设了短期自治的基础:人们现在可以不用根据上层的命令来调整去留。钟表也为集体活动提供了时间提示,同时使个人能够安排他们自己的工作,以加强生产力。事实上,生产力的准确概念是时钟的副产物,一旦一个人可以将其表现用统一的时间单位衡量,那么工作就永远都不会一样了。人们从农民以任务为导向的工作方式(在时间和光线条件允许的情况下,一件工作接着一件的干)和家奴以时间为导向的工作方式(总有事情做)中转变到了将单位时间的生产量达到最大化的努力中。

  托福阅读试题

  1.Why does the author provide the informationthat"in northern Europe the sun may be hiddenby clouds for weeks at a time,whiletemperatures vary not only seasonally but fromday to night"?

  A.To emphasize the variety of environments in which people used sun and water clocks to telltime.

  B.To illustrate the disadvantage of sun and water clocks.

  C.To provide an example of an area where water clocks have an advantage over sun clocks.

  D.To counter the claim that sun and water clocks were used all over Europe.

  1.从第一段的第二句开始,原文列举了这两种device各种的缺点,最后一句前半句说它们work,后面but表转折,证明要说有些情况它们不能用。所以选择B。A说人们在各种情况下都在使用这两种方法,与原文表达的意思相反,C将两种方法比较,原文没有这层意思。D整个和划线部分相反,原文说在northern Europe不能用。

  2.According to paragraph 2,all of the following are examples of the importance oftimekeeping to medieval European society EXCEPT

  A.the need of different towns to coordinate timekeeping with each other.

  B.the setting of specific times for the opening and closing of markets.

  C.the setting of specific time for the start and finish of the working day.

  D.the regulation of the performance of daily church rituals.

  2.虽然原文提到说城与城之间要保持一直,但其目的是organize collective activity,和ration space。而collective activity对应了选项B,C对应set time to go to sleep,也就是结束工作的时间。D对应开头catholic church的prayers活动。

  3.According to paragraph 2,why did the medieval church need an alarmarrangement?

  A.The alarm warned the monks of discord or strife in the town.

  B.The church was responsible for regulating working hours and market hours.

  C.The alarm was needed in case fires were not put out each night.

  D.One of the church's daily rituals occurred during the night.

  3.对应原文的第二句话,可根据alarm arrangement定位,前文说one of which was at night,后面说towaken monk before dawn,这两个都可以算是原因,选项中符合的只有D。

  4.The word"authoritative"in the passage(paragraph 2)is closest in meaning to

  A.actual.

  B.important.

  C.official.

  D.effective.

  4.authoritative是权威的,A是真实的,B是重要的,C是官方的,D是有效的。因此C是正确的。文章中也说only one怎样的time keeper,所以应该是官方准确时间。

  5.The author uses the phrase"the timekeeper of last resort"to refer to

  A.water clocks.

  B.the sun.

  C.mechanical clocks.

  D.the church.

  5.前文说需要它去check这个machines,which前面说的是solar dials所以指的是the sun。

  6.The word"rudimentary"in the passage(paragraph 3)is closest in meaning to

  A.rare.

  B.small.

  C.impractical.

  D.basic.

  6.rudimentary是基础的。A是稀有的,B是小的,C是不切实际的,D是基本的。所以根据词义D正确。这里我们可以看并列的词都是负面的,这里的rudimentary也是在强调未发展,有落后的意味。如果按照负面词来判断,C可能成为迷惑选项,但其词义不符。

  7.According to paragraph 4,how did the Catholic Church react to the introduction ofmechanical clocks?

  A.Its used mechanical clocks through the period of urban collapse.

  B.It used clocks to better understand natural phenomena,like equinoxes.

  C.It tried to preserve its own method of keeping time,which was different from mechanical-clock time.

  D.It used mechanical clocks to challenge secular,town authorities.

  7.可定位至相关段落,关键词为resisted,not coming over,所以证明church在拒绝新的计时方法,也就是在试着保护自己的方法。

  8.The word"installed"in the passage(paragraph 4)is closest in meaning to

  A.required.

  B.expected by the majority of people.

  C.standardized.

  D.put in place.

  8.installed被安装的,A是需要的,B是被大部分人们希望的,C是标准化的,D是放置于。D最符合,并且原文中原词的后面也跟了地点,所以用D最合适。

  9.It can be inferred from paragraph 5 that medieval clockmakers

  A.were able to continually make improvements in the accuracy of mechanical clocks.

  B.were sometimes not well respected by other engineers.

  C.sometimes made claims about the accuracy of mechanical clocks that were not true.

  D.rarely shared their expertise with other engineers.

  9.根据clockmaker定位至倒数第二句,说制表人是正确和精密的领路人然后就对他们各种赞扬。B,C,D选项都是在贬低制表人,所以很容易排除。B,D选项又和最后一句话明显冲突。A符合原文。

  10.Paragraph 5 answers which of the following questions about mechanical clocks.

  A.How did early mechanical clocks work?

  B.Why did the design of mechanical clocks affect engineering in general?

  C.How were mechanical clocks made?

  D.What influenced the design of the first mechanical clock?

  10.第五段主要说clockmaker引领了准确,精准工程的发展,他们是master,teacher等等,然后说他们是先锋,但这些都是因为他们是制表人。所以这道题选B。ACD原文都没提到。

  11.The word"pioneers"in the passage isclosest in meaning to

  A.leaders.

  B.opponents.

  C.employers.

  D.guardians.

  11.pioneer是先驱,A是领导者,B是对手,C是雇主,D是监护人。原文单词所在句后半句也说道他们作teacher,所以很容易理解他们是领导者。

  12.According to paragraph 6,how did the mechanical clock affect labor?

  A.It encouraged workers to do more time-filling busywork.

  B.It enabled workers to be more task oriented.

  C.It pushed workers to work more hours every day.

  D.It led to a focus on productivity.

  12.定位到原文最后一句,说使人们从task-oriented和time-filling busyness的模式变为maximizeproduct per unit of time,从而提高了productivity,所以选择D。A,B原文都提到了,但是是转化前的状态,C没提到。

  13.Look at the four squares[■]that indicate where the following sentence can beadded to the passage.Where would the sentence best fit?The division of time nolonger reflected the organization of religious ritual.

  Ironically,the new machine tended to undermine Catholic Church authority.Although churchritual had sustained an interest in timekeeping throughout the centuries of urban collapsethat followed the fall of Rome,church time was nature's time.■【A】Day and night were dividedinto the same number of parts,so that except at the equinoxes,days and night hours wereunequal;and then of course the length of these hours varied with the seasons.■【B】But themechanical clock kept equal hours,and this implied a new time reckoning.■【C】The CatholicChurch resisted,not coming over to the new hours for about acentury.■【D】From the start,however,the towns and cities took equal hours as their standard,and the public clocks installedin town halls and market squares became the very symbol of a new,secular municipalauthority.Every town wanted one;conquerors seized them as especially precious spoils ofwar;tourists came to see and hear these machines the way they made pilgrimages to sacredrelics.

  13.原句中no longer反应宗教仪式了,那么此句前后应该有对现在的计时制度的描写,另外句末提到了religious ritual,所以附近也应该有对宗教组织的态度描写,满足这两个条件的位置是C。

  14.Directions:An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage isprovided below.Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices thatexpress the most important ideas in the passage.Some sentences do not belong inthe summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or areminor ideas in the passage.This question is worth 2 points.

  The introduction of the mechanical clock caused important changes to the society of medievalEurope.

  A.The increasing complexity of social and economic activity in medieval Europe led to theneed for a more dependable means of keeping time than sun and water clocks provided.

  B.Because they were unreliable even in sunny climates,sun clocks and water clocks were rarelyused in Europe,even before the invention of the mechanical clock.

  C.Before the mechanical clock,every city wanted a large number of timekeepers because moretimekeepers allowed for better organization of collective activities.

  D.Soon after the invention of mechanical clocks,sun and water clocks became obsoletebecause mechanical clocks were far more accurate.

  E.Predators help maintain biological diversity by limiting populations of a dominantcompetitor species,thereby preventing that species from excluding others.

  F.The removal of sea stars reduces the diversity of the community in which they arepredators,and is therefore a bad idea.

  14.A对应第二段倒数第一句和倒数第二句后半句"with urban growth and the multiplication of timesignals,discrepancy brought discord and strife.Society needed a more dependableinstrument of time measurement and found it in the mechanical clock."正确。B与原文第一段矛盾。不选。C原文并没有提到说有大量的timekeepers,而第三段还说只能有一个权威的timekeeper不选。D对应原文第三段,说应用mechanical clock之后water clock很快被弃用了,但sun clock依然留下用来对照mechanical clock的准确性,错,不选。

  以上是蘑菇教育小编给大家整理的托福TPO30阅读Passage3原文文本+题目+答案解析,希望对你有所帮助!

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